European Migrant Crisis: Causes, Consequences, Reactions, Outcomes.

How does one distinguish between migrants and refugees? When did the crisis begin? Why is it called a crisis? What are the most notable tragedies that have occurred so far in terms of human lives lost, endangered, displaced? Who are the migrants / refugees and where are they coming from (what countries in particular)? What are they running from and why are they choosing Western Europe as their destination? How did different countries react to this influx? Are there differences between government reactions and popular reactions? (What are the reactions from the far right, for example? How do different governments address these internal issues?) What are the most common migration routes the migrants take? What role do human smugglers play in this tragedy? Which countries do they generally choose to settle? What are the refugees/immigrants / migrants looking for? Why is this happening now? What has the EU done so far and what more can it do? Are there any religious / cultural tensions between the migrants and the populations in the host countries? If yes, why do you think that is?